A fraction, which has 10 or any power of 10 as its denominator is called a decimal fraction. eg, 1/10 = 0.1, 5/10 = 0.5, 1/100 = 0.01, 11/100 = 0.11, 4/1000 = 0.004, ...... (a) The tenth part of a unit is denoted by 1/10 = 0.1 and read as point one or decimal one. (b) The hundredth part of a unit is denoted by 1/100 = 0.01 and read as point zero one or decimal zero one. (c) The thousandth part on unit is denoted by 1/1000 = 0.001 and read as point zero-zero one or decimal zero-zero one. (d) The number of figures, which follow the decimal point is the number of decimal point is the number of decimal places. eg, 12.405 has 3 decimal places in which 12 is the integral part and 405 is the decimal part. 100.2222 has 4 decimal places in which 100 is the integral part 2222 is the decimal part.

To convert put '1' in the denomination under the decimal point and add as many zeroes as is the number of digits after the decimal sign. Now, remove the decimal point and reduce the given fraction to its lowest terms. eg, 0.15 = 15/100 = 3/20, 0.036 = 36/1000 = 9/250 5.25 = 5 + 0.25 = 5 + 25/100 = 5 + 1/4 = 5(1/4) = 21/4 or, 5.25 = 525/100 = 21/4 (a) Adding zero to the right of decimal fraction does not change its value. eg, 0.4 = 0.40 = 0.400, etc. (b) If the numerator and denominator of a fraction contains the same number of decimal places, then we can simply remove each of the decimal signs. eg, 4.55/8.16 = 455/816, 0.1/0.5 = 1/5, 0.003/0.007 = 3/7

A decimal in which all the figures after the decimal point recur (occur again) is called a pure recurring decimal. eg, 2.‾5 is 2.55555...; 0.‾17 is o.17171717.....; 0.‾1 is 0.1111111............

Write the repeated figures once only in the numerator and take as many nines in the denominator as the repeated figures. Example 1 : Express each of the following recurring decimals as vulgar fractions. (i) 0.‾3 (ii) 0.‾12 (iii) 3.‾27 Solution. (i) 0.‾3 = 3/9 = 1/3 (ii) 0.‾12 = 12/99 = 4/33 (iii)3.‾27 = 3 + 0.‾27 = 3 + 27/99 = 3 + 3/11 = 3 3/11

A decimal in which some figures do not repeat and some of them repeat, is called recurring decimal. eg, 0.45‾24 is 0.4524242424.....; 0.6‾23 is 0.6232323....; 3.1‾52 is 3.1525252......

In the numerator, take the difference between the number formed by all the digits after decimal point and that formed by non-repeating digits. In the denominator, take as many nines as there are repeating digits and annex as many zeros as is the number of non-repeating digits. Example 2 Express each of the following mixed recurring decimal into vulgar fraction. (i)0.3‾8 (ii) 0.45‾24 (iii) 7.42‾5 Solution. (i) 0.3‾8 = (38 - 3)/90 = 35/90 = 7/18 (ii) 0.45‾24 = (4524 - 45)/9900 = 4479/9900 (iii)7.42‾5 = 7 + 0.42‾5 = 7 + (425 - 42)/900 = 7 + 383/900 = 7 (383/900) Example 3 Convert each of the following into vulgar fraction. (i) 0.72 (ii) 5.06 (iii) 0.0095 (iv) 12.175 Solution. We have (i) 0.72 = 72/100 = 18/25 (ii)5.06 = 506/100 = 253/50 (iii) 0.0095 = 95/10000 = 19/2000 (iv) 12.175 = 12175/1000 = 487/40

Example 4 : 3 + 0.3 + 0.33 + 0.03 + 0.033 = ? Solution. 3.0 0.3 0.33 0.03 0.033 ----- 3.693 ----- Hence, ? = 3.693 Example 5 : 0.789 + ? x 75 = 4.269 Solution. 7.5 x ? = 4.269 - 0.789 = 3.48 ? = 3.48/7.5 = 0.464 Example 6 : 1.23 x ? - 3.6 ÷ 2.4 = 3.42 Solution. 1.23 x ? - 3.6/2.4 = 3.42 => 1.23 x ? - 1.5 = 3.42 ? = (3.42 + 1.5)/1.23 = 4.92/1.23 = 4 Example 7 : 3.5 x ?/0.7 = 1.75 Solution. 1.75 x 0.7/3.5 = 1.225/3.5 = 0.35 Example 8 : ? ÷ 25 ÷ 12 = 52.45 Solution: ?/(25 x 12) = 5245 => ? = 25 x 12 x 52.45 => ? = 15735

Example 9 16.141 x 23.905 x ? = 432.2234 Solution: ? = 432.2234/(16.141 x 23.905) ≈ 432/(16 x 24) ≈ 1.125 ≈ 1 Example 10 : 936.118 ÷ 23.91 ≈ 13.001 = ? Solution : ? = 936.118/(23.91 x 13.001) ≈ 936/(24 x 13) ≈ 3 Example 11 : 195.559 + 39.0937 x 41.679 - 24.591 = ? Solution : ? ≈ 196 + (39 x 42) - 25 ≈ 196 + 1638 - 25 ≈ 1809